Physiology and injuries in sports
Physiology is the scientific study of ancient and living function in living system which includes how organisms, organ system, organ, cell and bio- molecules carry out chemical or physical function that exists in living system.
Sports physiology is the study of the long and short term effects of training and condition on athletes. In a sports context,this understanding is important for informing preparation to compete in environmental extremes are using an athletes adaptation to trained in these environments as a performance enhancing training stimulus.
Physiological factors determining components of fitness
Physical fitness plays a vital role in the human life. It is well said that only the overall fit person can lead a happy and healthy life styles. Fit person can be an ideal for others in the society. There are main five fitness components which determine the physical fitness of an individual. These physical fitness components are strength,speed, flexibility,endurance and coordination.
Muscular strength measured during muscular contraction.It is the maximal force of muscle that can exert during a contraction. Strenght is the ability of muscles to overcome or act against the resistance. There are so many sports which are directly related to strenght. Following are some physiological factors which determines the strenght.
1. Muscle size: Strength is basically associated with a large amount of muscle mass. Muscle mass does not necessarily mean stronger.
2. Body weight: Body weight is important factor which effect the strength. Strength is associated with the body weight of a person. If the body weight is ideal on the scale of BMI strength will be more but if the body weight is below or above normal, the strength will be less.
Flexibility plays an important role in all kind of sports. It can be defined as the ability of joint to move in maximum range. I’m simple words, we can say that flexibility is a mobility of muscles,which allows for more movement around the joints without restrictions. Following are some physiological factors which determines the flexibility:
1. Age and gender: age and gender is one of the most important factor which determine the flexibility of an individual. When the age of the person increase, flexibility starts decreasing.
2. Muscle strength: strenght of muscle is essential to perform any activity. The muscle with the good strength can stretch it to the maximum range. Weak muscle cannot flexible. The flexibility and strength of the muscle can be increased with the regular practice.
Speed is the most important aspect of fitness. Speed is seen as the physical fitness component that had a direct relationship with the nervous system and the muscular system. Following are the factors that determines the speed:
1. Explosive strength: explosive strength of muscle have direct influence upon the speed of individual. An individual can perform quick movement only,if he has more explosive strenght. Explosive strength further depend on composition of muscle, muscle size and muscle coordination.
2. Muscle composition: there are two types of muscle fibers on our body. Red muscle fibers and white muscle fibers. Different body muscles have different percentage of these fibers. As a result different muscle have different speed performance, sprinters have more percentage of fast twitch fibers,whereas, endurance athletes have more percentage of slow twitch fibers.
3. Flexibility: flexibility of muscles also determine the speed of an individual to some extent. Good flexibility level of individual permit maximum range of movement without much internal resistance.
Sports injuries can be define as any kind of injuries that occurs during the competition and any sports training sessions. Injuries are sommon in the sports. A player can be injured any time in the field of sports. These injuries can be accidental and some of them can be sure to poor training of the sports persons.
Some of the sports injuries are given below:
· Abrasion: abrasion is an injury,which is caused when the skin is scrapped or rubbed by friction. It causes severe pain and sometimes bleeding. It is normally a minor injury but can be serious, if some foreign matter is stuck in it. It may be caused by a fall on hard or rough surface. Such injuries occur in sports like Handball,Wrestling,Football, Cricket and Hockey.
· Contusion: it is an injury caused by the blow or impact without breaking or rupture of the skin. In other words, it is crushing of soft tissues by a violent external force without breaking the continuity of skin. It causes acute pain,loss of movement or function of an injured part,pain and sometimes swelling on the affected part.
· Laceration: laceration or wound is a cut over the skin caused due to several impact of an object or due to sharp edge. In such cases bleeding can be seen on affected part.
· Incision: incision is a common injury in sports. It can be as a simple cut or some time deep cut can be seen on the injured part.
· Sprain : it occurs due to overstretching of ligament or by twisting of joints.
· Strain: it is caused by the stress over the muscles.
· Dislocation: dislocation comes under the joints injuries. It can be defined as an abnormal separation in the joint between two or more bones. Dislocation occurs mainly in shoulder joint, ankle joints and knee joints. Sometimes dislocation may affect the ligaments and muscles and it occurs in handball,football, judo,etc.
· Bone injuries: it includes fractures.